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Introduction of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) In order to tackle climate change, all member parties that have ratified the Paris Agreement are required to submit their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the UNFCCC secretariat, outlining and communicating their national climate goals and actions. These NDCs can include information on mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer, capacity building, and…

The emissions trading system (ETSs) is currently one of the market-oriented tools adopted globally to control greenhouse gas emissions. On the basis of the construction of the regional ETS, harmonization is an important direction for future development in order to make the system more effective. Against the backdrop of the…

Highlights Download pdf Between 2014 and 2020, about USD160 billion of Chinese-backed coal-fired power plants were being planned or announced outside of China;More than USD65 billion of Chinese-backed coal-fired power plants have been either shelved, mothballed or cancelled since 2014, with more projects seeing delays in construction;In 2019 and 2020,…

Introduction Whilst the BRI is led by Chinese industry, the private sector is cautious in its implementation of environmental protection, especially regarding biodiversity conservation.1 Chinese BRI financiers lack international best-practice safeguards, whilst the whole project may impact more than 369 000 km2 of vulnerable habitat in a 25 km buffer…

Executive Summary Download the report here China is a major lender for countries of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Accelerated by the Covid-19 pandemic, many of these countries have seen their sovereign debt become unsustainable. Based on the analysis of debt in 52 Selected BRI countries from 2014 to…

On September 21, 2020, the aerospace giant Airbus announced concept designs for “ZEROe”, a zero-emission, hydrogen-powered airplane that would enter service by 2035. While it might be difficult to imagine traveling on a hydrogen-powered plane, hydrogen as a fuel is not new: liquid hydrogen has served as a rocket propellant…